- Either 16th century Spanish mystical sects; or a German secret society
founded in 1776. The Spanish illuminati or *Alumbrados, appear to have been founded by
Antonio de Pastrana at the end of the 16th century.They believed in a form of pure
contemplation and absorption into GOD, practiced severe mortifications, and
claimed visions and the power of prophecy...The German Illuminati, founded by
Johann Adam Weishaupt (1740-1830), pursued progressive illumination through
initiation into the successive stages of their society, involving the study of
philosophy and the arts. They believed themselves to be those who received the
illuminating grace of Jesus Christ, but (or 'therefore')they rejected other
religions and organizations. They sought to establish a fraternal and classless
society, on the basis of strict discipline (Weishaupt had been trained as a
Jesuit). They were also known as the Perfectibilists. Though outlawed in 1784/5,
the society re-emerged at the end of the 19th century, only to disappear again
under the Nazis* [*my Italics]
(If you've already read Cosmic
Trigger, you might think this definition is a tad bit...incomplete - LOL!
If you've heard of neither, go here. . .and remember, if you could be on a space ship 10,000
miles straight out from the south pole, but parallel to the equator and saw someone
standing on the "south pole", they'd be "upside down", even though the sky looked
like up to them...LOL!)
- (Latin, immanere, 'to inhabit'). The presence of
actions, or of God, in the world, usually in such a way that the source of the action
or presence remains distinct. Thus for the *scholastics, an immanent action is
one in which the action remains within the subject and does not modify the object
(such as seeing); for *Spinoza, a distinction between causa
immanens and causa transciens allowed the causality of God to be
immanent in nature. But more usually the word is used of the relation of God to the
created order. The total transcendance of the unproduced producer of all that is
would allow no relation to a created order; consequently, all theistic religions allow
some degree, or mode, of God's self manifestation, and thus to be the body of
- (Sanskrit, 'world teacher').
- (from the Pali, Sanskrit, 'meditation', 'absorption').
In traditional Buddhism, the scheme of meditational practice which leads to
*samadhi; the different
stages within that scheme; any kind of mental concentration or effort. Consult
the O.D.W.R. for the full entry.
- (Arabic, jahada, 'he made an effort'). More fully,
jihad fi sabil *Allah, "striving in the cause of God". Jihad is
usually translated as 'holy war', but this is misleading. Jihad is divided into
two categories, the greater and the lesser: the greater jihad is the warfare
in oneself against any evil or temptation. the lesser jihad is the defense of
Islam, or of a Muslim country or community, against aggression. It may be a jihad
of the pen or of the tongue. If it involves conflict, it is strictly regulated,
and can only be defensive. Thus Muhammad said:
"In avenging injuries inflicted upon us, do not harm
non-belligerents in their homes, spare the weakness of women, do not injure
infants at the breast, nor those who are sick. Do not destroy the houses of those
who offer no resistance, and do not destroy their means of subsistance, neither
their fruit trees, nor their palms."
Jihad cannot be undertaken to convert others because there 'cannot be
compulsion in religion' (Qur'an 2. 256). If these regulations seem on occasion to
be ignored, that failure is an offense to be answered on the Day of Judgement
(*Yaum al-din). One who takes part in a
jihad is known as a mujtahid.
DD>(Japanese, 'the Time School'). A form of *Pure Land
Buddhism founded by *Ippen in 1276. The main practice of Jishu is the
constant repitition of the *nembetsu, as if, at each moment, one is on the
point of death. Since Jishu originally had no temple, its adherents travelled
about (like Ippen) encouraging the recitation of the nembetsu. For this reason,
they are known as the Yugyo-ha, the school of wanderers.
- (from Sanskrit,
- (from Sanskrit, 'liberated in this life'). In Indian religions,
the condition of having attained enlightenment. (see *moksha, *mukti,
*nirvana). A jivanmukti (one who has attained the
condition) is in a state of being in the world but not of it, having reached
beyond the human
qualities of fear, desire, attachment, etc. though the physical body is
still subject to disease, he is enlightened, no longer living in nor dominated
by time, but rather in an eternal present without personal consciousness but with
complete lucidity of consciousness and the possessor of all the powers (*siddhis).
He has reached the supreme goal and simply allows his life to run out like the
fuel of a candle...
- St. *John of the Cross John
and Teresa of Avila have their own page.
- (Hebrew, yovel). Biblical law requiring the release of
slaves and the restoration of family property every fifty years. "Hallow the
fiftieth year...it shall be a Jubilee
to you and you shall return every man to his possession and his
family." Leviticus 25. 10. The purpose of the law was to
enable each Jew to begin life again on an equal basis and in possession of the
original allocation of land at the time of the Conquest of the `Promised Land'.
The agricultural laws of the sabbatical year (seventh of seven) applied in the
Jubilee year, such as having the land to lie fallow. Since the law depended
on the 12 tribes residing in the land of Israel the law fell into disuse after the
return from the Babylonian Exile.
- (Arabic, 'cube'). The building, deeply revered by Musilims, in
the center of the great mosque at at Mecca, in the eastern corner of which, about
5 feet from the ground, is embedded the *Black
Stone. The Ka'ba, about 35 feet by 40 feet, and 50 feet high, is called 'the
house of *Allah, and is the focus of the
daily *salat (ritual worship) of
Muslims throughout the world, and of the
annual hajj (pilgrimage). See the full entry in the O.D. of W.R.
- (from the Sanskrit, Pali: 'action', 'deed'; Chinese, yin-yuan;
Japanese, innen; Korean, inyon). Karman, the law of consequence with
regard to action, which is the driving force behind the cycle of re-incarnation or
rebirth (*samsara) in Asian religions.
According to karma theory, every action has a consequence which will come to
fruition in either this or a future life, thus morally good acts will have
positive consequences, whereas bad acts will produce negative results. Consult
the O.D.W.R. for the full entry.
- (Japanese, `seeing nature'). The Zen experience of
enlightenment, when one's own nature is seen for what it truly is, not to be
differentiated from the buddha-nature which pervades all appearance. It is thus
indistinguishable from *satori,
but the latter is used of the experience of the experience of the *Buddha or of the Zen patriarchs, kensho of
the initial experience of others which still needs to be deepened. the term
also applies collectively to those who have attained this state, the wise.
- (Sanskrit, `black', `dark'). A composite figure in Hinduism,
becoming eventually the eight and most celebrated *avatar(a) (incarnation) of *Vishnu. In the Rig Veda,
the name appears, but is not connected with divinity. He is the son of the Vedic
Devaki and her husband Vasudeva. He is also identified with the son of another
Devaki, and is referred to in Chandogya Upanishad 3. 17. 6 as a scholar.
The transformation of Krishna appears to have been a part of a longing (expressed
in Bhagavata Purana) for a more personal than philosphical focus for
religious devotion and progress: according to 1. 3. 27, Krishnas tu bhagavan
svayam, `Krishna is Bhagavan himself.' He is prominent in the
Mahabharata, and it is he who instructs Arjuna in the Bhagavad-gita.
The many legends told about him make him one of the most accessible figures of
Hindu devotion *bhakti. See the
full entry in the O.D. of W.R.
- (German, `night of glass'). The night, 9 November 1938,
on which Nazi ant-Semitism in Germany moved onto a newe level of ferocity:
synagogues were burned down and Jewish-owned shops were looted and destroyed
(hence the name, because the streets were covered in glass). From this point on,
the mass deportations to concentration camps began. (I'm posting this LEST WE
FORGET - my father, Marijan Kolic, was a teenaged guest worker from Croatia
(HRVATSKA) in the mid-twenties...he was employed by the KRUPPWERKE in the Ruhr
valley, and got beat up by `brown shirts' more than once before he moved to
- (Sanskrit). *Shakti
(power) envisaged as a coiled snake at the base of the central channel (sushumna
nadi) in the muladhara chakra of Tantric esoteric anatomy. Kundalini yoga is a
means of attaining *samadhi and
final liberation in Tantric sadhana. It is thought to be highly
dangerous to practice this yoga without the guidance of a
*guru See the full entry in the O.D.
- (Sanskrit, Padma). Religious symbol in Eastern religions.
Hinduism: The lotus represents beauty, and also non-attachment:
as the lotus, rooted in mud, floats on water without becoming wet, so should the
one seeking release live in the world without attachment.** More
specifically, it represents centers of consciousness (*chakras) in the body. It is equated with
the tree of life springing from the navel of (subsequently
*Vishnu as Marayana) bearing the
gods on its leaves.
Buddhism The lotus summarizes the true nature of
those who float free of ignorance (avidya) and attain enlightenment (*bodhi). It is there for throne or seat of a
Buddha, as in the Pure Land, it is the symbol of the Buddhist teaching.
- (Sanskrit, `great vehicle'; Chinese, ta-ch'eng;
Japanese, Daijo; Korean, Taesung). The form of Buddhism
prominent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Vietnam and Japan. It regards itself as
a more adequate expression of the *dharma
than what it calls *Hinayana (Sanskrit, `Lesser' or `Inferior
Vehicle'), a term it invented for forms of Buddhism superficially similar to but
by no means identical with *Theravada, and elements of which it sometimes
incorporates as preliminary teachings...*Zen claims a special wordless
transmission that could not by its very nature have a literary witness...The
distinctive teaching of the Mahayana is that of compassion for all sentient beings
such that the practicianer delays his own *Nirvanauntil all other beings shall have been liberated.
This is called the Great Compassion, while that of the Hinayana (which
neceassarily ceases with personal nirvana), is called Small Compassion. The ideal
practicioner is the *bodhisattva,
i.e. one who has given birth to the *bodhicitta (Sanskrit,
`Enlightenment-mind') which strives to manifest Great Compassion. Please
see the full entry in the O.D. of W.R.
- Sanskrit, `instrument of thought'; Chinese, chou;
Japanese, ju; Korean, chu). A verse, syllable, or series of
syllables believed to be of divine origin, used in a ritual or meditative context
in Indian religions. Mantras are used for the propitiation of the gods, the
attainment of power (*siddha),
and identification with a diety or the absolute, which leads to liberation from
appearing in the *Vedic *Samhita (2nd millenium BCE), mantras take on a
central role in sectarian Hinduism, and Buddhist and Hindu *Tantrism,
especially in the Buddhist Mantrayana school (7/8th century CE).
There are three kinds of mantra: linguistically meaningful, such as namah
shivaya, `homage to Shiva'; linguistically meangless, the *bija or `seed' mantras, such as om ah hum;
and combined, such as the Buddhist *om mane padme hum,
`om jewel in the lotus hum', Bijas have esoteric significance, and are often
the compacted forms of the names of gods or texts. For example, the bija
pram is said to be the essence of the voluminous
Astasaharika Prajñaparamita; or krim is the
essence of *Krishna.
- (Greek, martus, 'witness'). One who suffers death on behalf of
his or her faith, often for refusing to renounce it. The Oxford Dictionary of
World Religions has entries for Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Sikhism.
In the way of a personal note, the history of martyring people is a
record of some extremely "exotic", very GRUESOME (!!!) ways humans kill each
other...a dream that more and more people on the planet share these days is that
this behavior will someday (SOON???) become part of the INFANCY of the evolving
human story. So MOTE
it BE -- Jesse
- A Dervish order, known colloquially as 'whirling dervishes'. The name is
derived from mawlana ('our master'), a title of *Jalal al-din
al-Rumi. The dance induces trance- and ecstatic states, and is undertaken by
pivoting on the right foot, while engaging in *dhikr (concentration on God). The
Mawlawiy(y)a Order embraces a wider constituency and range of practices than
this (although the two are often identified). The Order was of great importance in
the Ottoman Empire, not least in the developement of music and calligraphy. The
name is often transliterated as Mevlevi.
- In Christian thought, the recognition by God that certain works are
worthy of reward. In Catholic teaching -deriving ultimately from statements
about reward in the New Testament (e.g. Matthew 5. 46; Romans 2. 6; 1
Corinthians 3. 8)-merit has a central place, although it is emphasized that merit de
condigno (`of worthiness') must be acquired in a state of *grace
and with the assistance of actual grace. Protestant theology denies or limits
merit as efficacious in salvation: created beings can never establish
any claim upon God or earn any reward from him; otherwhise salvation is a matter
of works and not God's grace...
In Buddhism, merit and its transfer form
one of the most important parts of the dynamic of society. The acquiring
of merit and its transfer to others is an important way in which monks and
laypeople interact. See *dana, *punya.
Among Jains, there are seven types of activity which are conducive tp progress in
rebirth (punyakshetra): donating an image, or a building to house an
image, paying for the copying of holy texts, giving alms to monks, or to nuns,
assisting laymen, or laywomen, in their religious activities or other needs.
- (Adaptation of Hebrew, ha-mashiah, `the anointed one' also
Anointed descendant of the Jewish king David who will restore the Jewish
kingdom. The idea of the messiah did not exist before the second Temple
period., but grew out of the biblical hope that the house of David would again
rule over the Jewish people. The so-called `Messianic oracles' in the
Prophets (e.g. Isaiah 7. 14; 9. 1-6) do not look for a distantly future
king, but express the hopes vested in the new-born royal child. The
kings played a roll in the cult, representing the people before god-a role
vividly expressed in the many royal psalms. The failure of the kings
historically led to a reassessment during the Exile, when the future hope
replaced present kingship. For a complete record of messianic aspirations up
through modern times, see the entry in the O.D. of W.R.
Christianity Although at an early date the followers of Jesus
were marked out as those who believed that Jesus was the promised messiah/christ
(Acts II. 26, `It was at Antioch that the disciples were first called Christians'),
Jesus appears to have resisted any attempt to interpret what he was doing and saying
in his God-derived way thought that category-to such an extent that it gave rise
to the theory of the messianic secret (Albert Schweitzer wrote of this). Jesus in fact
interpreted himself through the phrase (it was not even a title), `the son of
man', as the one who is not a supernatural figure, like an angel or a
messiah, but who is subject to death (son of Adam), yet who demonstrates the `power'
(dunamis) of God to change life through himself. See the O.D. of W.R.
for the full entry.
Islam In Islam, al-Masih is a description (almost
a name, except that the Arabic article is never dropped) for Isa/Jesus: `O
Maryam, see, Allah promises you a word from him whose name is al-Masih, Isa b. Maryam'
(Qur'an 3. 45). In modern Arabic, Christians are often called Masihiy(y)un, rather
than the older Nasara. Less exactly, Muslim beliefs about *al-madhi
are sometimes referred to as messianism.
- (from Sanskrit, muk or moks, 'release', 'liberation'). The
fourth and ultimate (Artha) goal of Hinduism, release from the round of death and
rebirth, *Samsara. This is
attained when one has overcome ignorance (avidya) and desires. The routes heading
toward moksha are. in effect, a map of 'Hinduism': the *Bhagava-gita tries
to reconcile the different forms of *Yoga, *Jñana, Karma, and *Bhakti, as all having their place.
Although moksha is the *soteriological goal of Hinduism, it
is paradoxically not a goal at all, since its attainment depends upon one's
abandonment of all desire and attachment, including the desire for moksha. Moksha
is the transcendence of all goals. Its attainment...marks the end of rebirth or
suffering. For Jains, moksha is emancipations from the empidements of karma, and
this lies beyond enlightenment.
- (Japanese; Chinese, `wu'). Zen emptiness of content, nothingness, closely related to *sunyata. *Dogen explored ways of
illuminating the buddha-nature (*bussho), which is emplty of self, but
which produces apparent form. In the central exchange between Dogen and his
successor, Koun Ejo, Dogen asked, 'What is your name?' He replied,
'There is a name, but not an everyday name.' He asked, 'What is
it?' He replied, 'Buddha-nature.' Dogen said, 'You have no
Buddha-nature.' He said, 'You say I do not have
it because Buddha-nature is emptiness.' From this arises the first
*koan of the Wu-men-kuan (Mumonkan), which introduces the Zen
student to 'The world of mu': 'A monk asked master *Chao-Chou
respectfully, "Does a dog actually have a Buddha-nature or not?" He
replied, "Mu"'. The opposite is *U
- (Sanskrit, `seal', `sign'). In both Hinduism and Buddhism, a
sign of power, through the body, especially the hands.
In Hindusim, the mudras of ritual worship (puja) are an outward and
visible sign of spiritual reality which they bring into being. Thus mudras
frequently appear in Hindu sculpture (as they do in Jain and Buddhist), especially
*dhyana (meditation, hands
linked in front of body with palms upward), *Abhaya-vacana
(fear-repelling, hand lifted, palm outward), and varada (hand held out,
palm upward, bestowing bounty). The añjali mudra is the best-known to
the outsider, since it is the `palms together', at the level of the chest,
greeting in India. As a mudra, it expresses the truth underlying all appearances.
In Buddhism, (Chinese, yin-hsiang; Japanese, in-zo;
Korean, insang), a mudra is a particular configuration of the hands
accompanying a *mantra and associated with a
visualization or other mental act, the three elements together (called by
Kukai `the union of the three mysteries', Japanese, sammitsu kaji)
possessing sacramental efficacy in regard to a particular deity or liturgical
action. Also it refers to iconographically determined gestures.
- (Japanese, 'not one thing'). A Zen extension of *Mu,
emphasizing that no phenomenon has any substantial, underlying, permanent
foundation-as *sunyata also confirms.
- (Japanese, 'the embodiment of the unsurpassable way').
The embodiment of of Zen enlightenment (*satori, *kensho) in the midst of everyday life. It is the realization
of the buddha-nature (*satori, *bussho). with no residue of
worldly attachment left. It is the continuous state of *samadhi. It does not occur with
satori, but can only be attained on its foundation, probably after many further
- (from Sanskrit, muc, 'release'). In Hinduism, on who has
attained *Moksha or *Mukti. One whose
liberation from attachment and desire occurs during one's life is a *jivanmukta; one whose liberation occurs in the discarnate
state after death is a videha-mukta. Attainment of *jivanmukta is *dharma of the *samnyasa *asrama. A
jivanmukta, though released, remains in this world due to unripened karmic
residues (karmasayas), as a potter's wheel continues to turn once the
potter's hand is removed.
- (from Sanskrit, muc, 'release'). In Vedic Sanskrit, mukti meant
release from the limitations of the body and the mind, effected by ritual action.
Later ther term became identified with *moksha. This is the term used by
Sikhs for liberation from successive rebirths.
- (Arabic; cf. Hebrew, nephesh). The individual self or soul in
Islam, which exists in conjunction with ruh. In the Quran,
nafs is sometimes nothing more than a reflexive pronoun (`you,
yourself'). But it also has a stronger content as `living person' (21. 35f.), and as
the self or soul removed by God at death (39. 43). It is the subject of
accountability at the DAY OF JUDGEMENT (Yaum al-Din). Ruh (cf.
HebrewRuah) is the breath breathed into humans by God to create
living beings, and is thus less individualized, but it carries consequential
meaning of a speaking being, hence something like `spirit'. Nafs is
frequently the lower self, the self with appetites and passions, `the soul which
incites to evil' (12.53). Ruh is the humanizing spirit, the active intellect which
(for classic Muslim philosophers) is continuous with the primordial or First
Intellect, and this raises humans above the level of animals and even angels.
(*Ruh ALLAH) is the name of Jesus/Isa in Quran 4. 169, and by
implacation, of Adam (15. 29), perhaps reflecting the symmetry of first
Adam/Second Adam in Paul.
- (1469-1539 CE). First *Sikh *Guru, and founder of the Sikh religion. His teachings form the
basis of Sikh theology. The Mul mantra encapsulates Nanak's assurance that God is
one, the creator of all, and immune from death and *rebirth. He is formless and
immanent as realized in the mystical union to which human *bhakti (devotion) is
directed. To refer to God, Nanak used many Hindu and Muslim names (e.g. *Hari,
*Ram, Khuda, *Sahib), but especially *Sat(i)nam, i.e. his Name is Truth, as opposed to
- (from Sanskrit, 'extinction'; Chinese, nieh-pan;
Japanese, nehan; Korean, yulban). The final goal and attainment
in Indian religions. In Hinduism, nirvana is the extinguishing of worldly desires
and attachments, so that the union with God or the Absolute is possible. In
Buddhism there is no Self or soul to attain any state or union after death.
Nirvana therefore represents the realization that that is so. It is the condition
of absolute cessation of entanglement or attachment, in which there is, so to
speak, that state of cessation, but no interaction or involvement...It does not
mean 'extinction', a view which the Buddha repudiated. That is why nirvana can
receive both negative (what it is not) and positive (what it is like)
descriptions, though it cannot, in fact be described. For other differences
between the Hindu and Buddhist views, consult the O.D.W. R.
- om, or aum
- The most sacred syllable in Hinduism, which first appears in the *Upanishads. It is often regarded as the
seed of all mantras, containing as it does, all origination and dissolution. It is
known as pranava, or 'reverberation', and is the supreme aksara, or
- OM MANE PADME HUM
- (Tibetan pronunciation: om mane pehme hung).
- 1. In Hinduism, the sense (especially in the Upanishads)
of the free action of favor or *grace, coming to the assistance of
individuals and helping them toward *moksha
(release): `When favored by Brahman, the self (*atman) attains immortality' (Svetasvatara
Upanishad 1. 6). Katha Upanishad puts it even more strongly: `This
atman [i.e. the recognition *Tat Svam asi] cannot be attained by
instruction, or by intellect, or by learning. He can be attained only by the one
whom he chooses: to such a one that atman reveals his own nature' (2. 23). `Grace'
is thus opposed to `works' (i.e. the strict working out of *karma). See S. Kulandran, Grace in Christianity and
Hinduism (1964); The entry for Sikhism in the O.D. of W.R. also discusses the
importance of grace for Sikhs.
2. Food offerings, which are then shared among worshippers, carrying with
them spiritual effect.
3. Peace of mind received, without effort, as a gift.
- Hebrew for 'my master'. Jewish learned man, who has received
ordination. In Reform congregations, since 1972, it may also be a woman.
- *Ramayana Listed on Sacred
- Hebrew 'geshem'). A recurrent theme in Jewish liturgy (see esp.
the tractate *Ta'anit), perhaps reflecting the agricultural base of life
in the biblical period. It was a mark of the *messiah's connection with God that he would mediate rain to
the land: this arises directly from the way in which the kings in Judah were involved
in rain-making rituals in the cult; these persisted in *Sukkot as practiced in
the *Hasmonean period, even though there is no hint of them in the Torah's
regulations--one of the major conflicts between Sadducees (who wished to floow Torah
alone) and Pharisees (who wished to continue custom).
- Yiddish for 'teacher'. Title given by the Hasidim to their
- The concentration of one's mental powers, especially the will, on the presence
of God, perhaps best known as one of *Teresa, of
Avila's states of prayer. More generally, a state of composedness in one's
everyday life as a result of which one's sense of the presence of God is only
barely subconscious. It requires the deliberate 'gathering together within oneself of the
vagabond mind'. My emphasis -Jesse.
- Judaism The Hebrew words padah and
ga'al were used originally of commercial transactions, implying the
existence of prior obligations. Ga'al is also used of the brothers
of someone who has died childless: they are under the obligation to `redeem' the
name of the deceased (Ruth 4. 1-10; Deuteronomy 25. 5-10). The goel
is the blood-avenger of Numbers 35. 12-29; in Job 19. 25 (translated of old, `I
know that my redeemer liveth') it is a legal term: `I know that my advocate is
active'. These basic meanings were all transferred as metaphors for God's
activity, nature, and commitment.
According to the biblical Prophets amd the Psalmist, God will redeem his people
from oppression (Isaiah 1. 27) and death (Hosea 13. 14), and he is described as
the `father of orphans, defender of widows' (Psalm 68. 6)...The kabbalists
understood redemption as a process by which the *Shekhinah returns to God and the unity of the
Godhead is fully restored. In modern times, redemption tends to be understood as
the triumph of good over evil in human history or in the individual's personal
Christianity In Christian theology, the term is inherited from the
New Testament, where it is associated with the death of Christ (e.g. Ephesians 1.7).
See *Atonement. The actual metaphor of
`redeeming' or `ransoming' has been more prominent in some formulations than
others, and has caused well-known problems when pressed: e.g. whether the price or
ransom is thought of as paid to Satan or to God himself...the term is now used of
the process whereby the human race is restored to that communion with God, for
which it was created, through the salvific work of Christ.
More loosely still, redemption is...applied to salvific processes and
achievements on other religions-e.g. the work of *bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism.
- *Richard Rolle
- (c.1300-49). Christian hermit and mystic. Born near Pickering in Yorkshire,
he became a hermit as a young man, latterly near the convent of Cistercian
nuns at Hampole, where he died, perhaps of the Black death. His writings, both in
Latin and English, give expression to a highly affective mystical experience of
'heat', 'sweetness', and 'song'.
Be it known to all manner of people in this wretched dwelling-place of exile
abiding, that no man may be embued with love of endless life, nor be anointed with
heavenly sweetness, unless he truly be turned to God. It behoves truly he be
turned to him . . . before he may be expert in the sweetness of God's love.
He was very influential in medieval England, especially through his lyrics and
vernacular writings, though his emphasis on experience was regarded as suspect in
in his own time, notably by the author of the *Cloud of Unknowing
- *Ruah ha-Qodesh.
- (Hebrew, Holy Spirit).
- (from Sanskrit 'roarer', or 'the ruddy one'). A Vedic
storm god...sometimes identified with *Agni
or *Indra, especially in connection with monsoon
rains...he has two aspects, one associated with fertility, healing and welfare,
the other associated with destruction, rage, and fear...Rudra the
destructive power of lightning and thunder, his form is described as brilliant
and dazzling, copper-coloured and ruddy. He is armed with lightning bolts and
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